Before starting about HOW MANY TYPES OF SCOLIOSIS ARE THERE(USA 2021) let’s have a basic idea of scoliosis
A person’s first impression is collected from the way he stands sits and walks.
Balancing the body accurately and appropriately while standing, sitting, writing,
and reading, or in any other bodily movements is called Correct Posture. In
proper Posture, the body seems to be in the vertical line and all the bodyweight is
balanced by both feet, to perform daily functions effectively without getting
fatigued. Posture Changes according to the activity and is called dynamic.
what is Scoliosis??
Many types of deformities arise on the Spine, one of which is Scoliosis.
In this article, we are going to tell you about the different aspects of Scoliosis or
deformity, its causes, treatment, prognosis, types, etc.
Postural alteration of, spine in the lateral direction, is called Scoliosis.
In other words, scoliosis can be defined as the sideways bending of, spine from its
The normal curvature of, spine is present only at, shoulders and lower back.
If you find any other curvature in a different side then you may comprehend this
as spinal or postural deformity.
Symptoms of Scoliosis
In ancient Greek, Scoliosis means bending, twisting, or rotating.
Sometimes these sideways curves are named scoliosis curves.
These scoliosis curves are identified as either convexity right or right convexity.
These scoliosis curves are often found in ‘C’ or ‘S’ shaped in 3 dimensions.
Symptoms depend upon the degree of deformity but there are some
general symptoms also like
- Uneven Hipline: Your one hip seems to be higher than, another one. Sometimes it is caused by larger and smaller legs in degenerative Scoliosis.
- Back Pain: Constant sharp back pain is the most common symptom of scoliosis may be due to pressure on the Spinal cord or herniated disc, or bulging disc, etc.
- Uneven Shoulder: Your shoulder also seems to be uneven or not aligned properly due to this deformity in the spine. Sometimes a shoulder is projected outward, than others.
- Breathing Problems: when the curve of the spine increases, it puts additional pressure on the rib cage which in consequence, decreases the thoracic cavity causing pulmonary distress.
Causes of Scoliosis
The major factors or causes of this deformity are still unknown.
There is no identifiable cause in 80 percent of the cases that come to the hospital.
But it may be caused by:
- Neuromuscular conditions: The neurological and muscular system of the body affects the healthy growth, shape, stability, and overall development of the Spine. This condition includes many diseases like Cerebral palsy, Spine Bifida, muscular dystrophy; spinal cord tumors, myopathy, and muscular atrophy are some of them.
- Congenital: This means that the disease or deformity occurred during pre-birth. It is rare but there are various cases in which the development of the fetal spine during pregnancy was hindered.
In the newborn, this disease is already present at birth.
Genetic: Many researchers and scientists believe that
there must have been at least one specific gene that can develop Scoliosis.
Leg Length: If any person has one leg, smaller than the other, he or she is more likely to develop scoliosis.
Osteoporosis: A condition in which pores of bone become large or bone becomes porous due to some degeneration. This may cause secondary Scoliosis.
- Spinal cord trauma:
The chances of getting scoliosis are much higher If you have had an accident or injury in your spinal cord.
- Posture: Proper posture had a great impact on developing Scoliosis. The spine may get curved slightly due to uneven muscle balance but it cannot cause bone deformity. For example, carrying a heavyweight on the back or shoulder or playing heavy guitar more often.
Here, combining the effects of genetics and environmental factors on bones, muscles, and nerves, plays an important role.
Types of Scoliosis
- Congenital Scoliosis: This type of Scoliosis, already present in newborns. It occurs due to the underdevelopment of the spine, vertebrae, and nerves during fetal development in the womb of the mother.
- Early Onset Scoliosis: This type of Scoliosis occurred at an early age due to twisting or curving of the spine, causing the spine to get a ‘C’ or ‘S’ shape.
- It is slightly different from Congenital Scoliosis and in most cases, it is self-treatable under any expert supervision.
- Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS): As the name suggests ‘there is no known cause’. This type of scoliosis occurs in teens, between 10-18 years. This can result in twisting of the spine and bending of the spine at the same time in the patient, giving rise to a hump on the backside.
- Degenerative Scoliosis: This type of Scoliosis develops in elderly people of about 50 years of age. It is developed due to the weak muscles and bones showing wear and tear due to the pressure of the bent spine. Over time, joints and discs started to degenerate in patients.
- Neuromuscular Scoliosis: Is caused by neurological and muscular conditions in the patient’s body. Damaged nerves and muscle weakening cause the development of this type of scoliosis. Many conditions contributed to the development of this deformity like Cerebral palsy, Spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, etc. This type of Scoliosis is always progressive like degenerative Scoliosis.
- Syndromic Scoliosis: This means that scoliosis or lateral alterations of the spine, develop as a part of a syndrome. The syndrome is a cluster of symptoms that appears together. Many syndromes increase the risk of Scoliosis, for example, MED syndrome, Trisomy of 21st Chromosome, Parada Willi Syndrome, and Beale’s Syndrome, etc.
Physical Examination of Scoliosis:
Scoliosis is confirmed through imaging like X-ray, Radiograph, CT scan, or MRI. However, several possible signs point out the possibility of scoliosis.
Some of them are given below:
- There is a visible lateral curve in the Spine.
- The upper body is tilted slightly.
- One-shoulder must be higher than, another shoulder.
- There are visible local muscular arches.
- Continuous pain in the ligaments
- Affected Pulmonary Function
Can you get scoliosis later in life?
When some think of scoliosis, they might imagine a condition of lateral shifting of the Spine in childhood.
But the fact is anyone can get scoliosis even if they never had this deformity previously.
In recent years, there is an increase in the number of adult scoliosis cases,
this may be due to more physical activity and longer life in which wear
tear of cartilage between the spine occurs.
Some other examples are already stated
above like Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis, Degenerative Scoliosis, etc.
Scoliosis Treatment for Kids:
In the case of children, the severity of the disease plays an important role in deciding the suitable treatment for any child. This may vary from child to child depending upon age, weight, strength, mental health, physical health.
Braces, Casting, Plastering, Physical Therapy, etc
- Traditional Open Spinal Surgery
- Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery
- Laser Back Surgery
- Vertebral Body Tethering
- Spinal Fusion
Alternative: Electric Stimulation of Muscle, Dietary Supplements
Scoliosis Treatment for Adults:
The priority in treating Scoliosis in adults is by Non-Surgical Methods like therapeutic, medication, exercise, diets, and other methods, if the curve is between 10-30°. If the curve exceeds then 50° in patients and no improvement is seen after non-surgical methods then they have to go with surgery.
- Non-Surgical Methods:
- Controlling pain through Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- For controlling Nerve pain, steroidal injection can be helpful.
- Physical training and exercise to increase muscular strength
- Weight Alterations
- Correction of Postural Alignment
- Spinal Fusion
- Bone Grafting
- Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic (VAT) surgery
- Decompressive laminectomy
- Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery (MIS)
- Traditional Open Spinal Surgery
- Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LLIF)
Spinal Surgery for Scoliosis in Adults:
Most of the adult does not need spinal surgeries to treat Scoliosis, but it is considered in various cases like as follows:
- If the person has progressive Scoliosis which is getting worse day by day
- If the person has severe persistent back pain and becomes a hindrance in daily work.
- If any nerve is pressurized by a bulging disc or herniated disc
- If any nerve in your spine is being squashed
- If a person has any of these problems then his or her doctor may prescribe him or her a surgical treatment.
Types of surgeries:
- Spinal Fusion: In this method, a fluid is injected into the Spine to fuse two vertebrae to make a solid one as a bone. This is a very effective method and used to realign the vertebral column.
- Decompressive laminectomy: In this method of surgical treatment, small parts of bone and tissue are removed to reduce the pressure on, spinal cord and nerves. This process is a posterior approach to correct scoliosis.
- Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery (MIS): In this method of surgical treatment of scoliosis, rods and screws are attached to the spine to make it straight with minimal invasion and a small incision.
- Traditional Open Spinal Surgery: Generally called Spinal Reconstruction in which, the surgeon works on the realignment of the spine and decompression of neural elements. It may be divided into, two-stage approaches where anterior and posterior surgery, held on different days.
- Laser Back Surgery
If you have severe Scoliosis symptoms and they get worse day by day then you must have surgery to reduce pressure,
pain and begin your healthy daily functions.
There are many types of surgeries in the world.
Some are practiced widely and some are still under study.
Laser back surgery is a type of surgery in which, the laser is used to cut herniated discs, ligaments, or tissue located around,
spinal cord with minimal loss to nerves and avoids further complications.
This is very specific and only a few clinical studies have been done.
- Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (MISS):
It is another type of surgery for Scoliosis.
It is the most widely practiced surgery in the world for various spinal disorders and deformities.
In this surgery, a spinal tubular retractor is used to make a small tunnel
into the soft tissues and then surgery is performed and rods
screws are attached to the Spine to make it straight.
Real-time X-ray and special microscope is used in this surgery.
It is a new method in the field of surgery.
This method is done with minimal opening, small incision, less pain,
minimal nerve damage. It also helps in quick recovery.
Scoliosis Surgery Death Rate
In a study conducted by Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity
Mortality Reports (2002-2005),
the overall complications rate comes out to be 8.6 percent
in those who recently had spinal fusion surgery.
Many patients, who died, also have co-morbidities like heart diseases, neurological deficits, etc.
Pregnancy after Scoliosis Surgery
Risk is the natural part of the pregnancy with or without scoliosis.
But how does scoliosis affects the overall pregnancy period?
The first question that arises in this connection is whether I should be pregnant
not or is there any danger to my child?
- In answer to that question of yours, scientists and doctors did not find any connection of complications in pregnancy, labor, delivery, and fetal development, between those women who have scoliosis and those who don’t have this disease.
- Secondly, there is a 30 percent chance that your baby is suffering from Idiopathic Scoliosis in your womb if you have a family history of Scoliosis.
- Still, there is no guarantee that your baby will also be affected by scoliosis if you have this disease.
- Lastly, there is no evidence that pregnancy can cause scoliosis curve progression. You can convince pregnancy without getting fear from scoliosis in this case.
- Lumbar and Thoracic scoliosis
- Thoracic Scoliosis: This is the most common type of Scoliosis based on location. Characterized by the curvature that occurs in the thoracic part of the Spine. This type of scoliosis creates deformity in the rib cage and causes pulmonary distress. A hump-like structure is seen on the back as the curvature becomes progressive.
- Lumbar Scoliosis: This type of Scoliosis occurs in the lumbar region of the spine and is characterized by uneven hip alignment with one longer and one smaller leg. Lumbar Scoliosis is a degenerative Scoliosis. Patients are, generally, more than 50 years of age. In this Cobb angle is more than 10 degrees.
- Double Curve Scoliosis
This is commonly known as the ‘S’ Shaped Scoliosis Curve.
In which both, Lumbar and Thoracic regions of the Spine make, ‘S’ shaped curve.
The degree of severity may vary upon the Cobb Angle.
It is not a life-threatening condition unless it becomes progressive.
In progressive double curve Scoliosis,
patients may develop pressure on nerves which causes back pain,
numbness in the lower part of the body,
sometimes loss of coordination.
Cardiac and pulmonary function may get affected, by the severity of the disease.
Spinal fusion surgery, rotating surgeries, traditional open back surgery are
preferred treatments for patients, when unable to harvest the benefits of braces
and casting or physical therapy.
- Fibromyalgia and Scoliosis
These two conditions are very different from each other.
Although some symptoms may seem to be identical, the causes
treatment is much different. In Fibromyalgia,
there is pain, all over the body and stiffness
tenderness in the muscles.
This condition may induce some mental disorders along with insomnia.
Symptoms include tenderness in muscles, body ache, insomnia,
joint pain, difficulty in focus, migraine, anxiety, depression, etc.
Keep in mind that these symptoms may vary from person to person
depending on the severeness of the disease.
Treatment of fibromyalgia must be done under the supervision of the super-
specialty doctor as this is a syndrome
requires a proper plan to implement.
While scoliosis is a condition in which lateral shifting of the Spine occurred in the body.
This is already explained in this article.
When you visit your healthcare provider,
firstly he or she takes your medical history.
Furthermore, he or she did a conclusive
a thorough study of your symptoms to determine Scoliosis.
‘Adam’s Forward Bend Test’ is one of the many physical exams
that can be performed to determine Scoliosis including standing
and sitting exams. Your doctor may also perform
some other exam to see any muscle weakness, neurological conditions, numbness,
abnormal reflexes, etc.
Scoliometer can be used to measure the angle of Scoliosis or Cobb angle.
If you have some abnormalities in your Spine
then your doctor may order an X-Ray imaging
or MRI to confirm the diagnosis.
After confirmation of the diagnosis of scoliosis,
patients are treated with non-surgical methods like bracing,
weight management, and physical training.
You must visit your doctor or health care provider twice a year
so that he or she can check if there is any progression or not.
Can You Live With Scoliosis?
Scoliosis is not life-threatening in most cases.
Many people have this deformity without knowing it.
Some patients can manage it through a healthy diet
exercise while some people can be treated
with non-surgical methods, very easily.
However, when you feel difficulty in your daily routine work
like sitting, walking, working, etc.
then you may get advice to perform surgery to avoid
wrenching back pain and pulmonary dysfunction.
Southwest Scoliosis Institute
It is a world-renowned institute for the treatment or surgery of Scoliosis founded in 2009.
Southwest Scoliosis Institute is situated in Dallas, Texas.
Dr.Richard Hostin, MD, Dr.Shyam Kishan, MD, Dr.Kathryn Wiseman, MD, is
appointed surgeons in Southwest Scoliosis Institute that provide the best care for
Spine and Scoliosis Treatment.
There’s research and innovation bring them various awards and accolades in the field of surgery.
Is scoliosis genetic??
Genetic is the most disturbing aspect of scoliosis, but it is not the cause of scoliosis.
The most prevailing type of Scoliosis is idiopathic scoliosis,
which means the cause is unknown.
To find out the cause of scoliosis, scientists must look beyond the curved spine as
a root cause. The number of researches has been increased
in recent years on this suggests some connections of scoliosis
with the human genome.
There must be some groups that affect the specific gene
that produces a protein, neurotransmitters, enzymes,
hormones used in the development of the spine and spinal muscles.
Hindrance in the production causes alterations in brain postural memory in
adolescents, which at last, produces deformities in the Spine
muscles along with misalignment.
So, in conclusion, we can say that even after a limited number of studies,
scientists can find out that there must be some genetic variant pattern that causes
the sudden deformity in the growing child.
Mild cases of Scoliosis can be treated with non-surgical methods like exercises,
bracings, chiropractic treatment, etc.
It is also proved by some studies
that exercise may help in treating scoliosis.
However, you have to consult with your doctor or physical trainer first,
he or she suggests you the best stretches
exercises depending upon the degree of deformity.
Some general exercises help you in mild to moderate cases of Scoliosis.
- Pelvic Tilts: This exercise is used to stretch and strengthen the muscles of the lower back and hips.
- Arm and Leg Raise: In this exercise, a person raises their alternate arm and leg while lying on the belly. This will help in decreasing the lower back pain caused due to scoliosis.
- Double Leg Abdominal Pose: Bend your knees and hips 90 degrees simultaneously, while lying on your back. Additionally, press your palm against your knees to engage abdominal muscles.
- Single-Leg Balance: Bend your knees 90 degrees while standing on the floor. Keep your back straight, if possible.
- Planks: This is the best exercise someone can practice for Spine. Making you a straight plank with only elbows and toes, touching the floor.
Yoga for Scoliosis
Yoga is also as beneficial as exercise.
This is a form of treatment in the category of non-surgical methods for correcting scoliosis.
It improves the spinal posture and reduces the pain due to scoliotic curves.
Yoga also focuses on flexibility, postural deformity as well as alignment.
- Adho Mukha Savanasna (Downward Facing Dog): This pose improves circulation and strengthens your core.
- Ardha Uttanasana (Half Forward Bend): This pose stretches the upper body and spine.
- Salabhasana (Locust Pose): This pose tightens the buttocks, stretches the complete body, and also improves posture.
- Tadasana (Mountain Pose): This yoga pose tightens the core and buttocks, relieves sciatic nerve pain.
Besides yoga, you must have to work on your proper posture and your balance, not on the symmetry of the body.
CONCLUDED TOPIC: HOW MANY TYPES OF SCOLIOSIS ARE THERE(USA 2021)